July 22, 2024

Early Life and Education

Adam Smith, born on 5 June 1723 in Kirkcaldy, Scotland, was a Scottish social philosopher and pioneer of classical economics. He attended the Burgh School of Kirkcaldy and later pursued his studies in moral philosophy at the University of Glasgow. Despite receiving a scholarship to study at Balliol College, Oxford University, Smith was unimpressed by the teaching standards there and returned to Scotland to give lectures in Edinburgh before becoming a professor of Moral philosophy at Glasgow University in 1751.

Philosophy and Moral Sentiments

Around 1750, Smith met the philosopher David Hume, with whom he shared beliefs about liberty, free speech, and philosophy. Their friendship greatly influenced Smith’s moral philosophy, culminating in the publication of “The Theory of Moral Sentiments” in 1759. This work emphasized the importance of sympathy in human relations and behavior.

Adam Smith and Economics

Transitioning from moral philosophy to political economy, Smith published his seminal work “The Wealth of Nations” in 1776. He explored concepts such as the division of labour, the invisible hand, and the benefits of free trade, challenging the prevailing views of his time.

The Invisible Hand

Smith introduced the concept of an ‘invisible hand’ in economics, suggesting that individuals pursuing their self-interests could lead to positive outcomes for society as a whole. This idea revolutionized economic thought by emphasizing the importance of individual actions in driving economic prosperity.

Limitations of Free Markets

Despite his advocacy for free markets, Smith acknowledged the potential for exploitation by private businesses and advocated for progressive taxation to address wealth inequality. His nuanced approach to economic policy reflected a deep understanding of both the benefits and limitations of market forces.

Legacy and Influence

Adam Smith’s work laid the foundation for modern economics and influenced generations of economists. His insights into market mechanisms, labor specialization, and the role of government in regulating economic activity continue to shape economic discourse today.

Personal Life and Beliefs

Adam Smith, characterized as a solitary and absent-minded thinker, maintained a close relationship with his mother and remained unmarried throughout his life. While his religious beliefs evolved towards a Deist perspective, he retained a sense of divine providence in the order of the universe.

Death and Lasting Impact

Adam Smith passed away on 17 July 1790 in Edinburgh, lamenting his perceived lack of achievement. He requested the destruction of his private papers, leaving behind a legacy that extended far beyond his lifetime. Smith’s lasting impact on economic thought and philosophy continues to shape our understanding of market dynamics, government intervention, and societal welfare.

Economic Beliefs and Contemporary Relevance

In modern terms, Adam Smith’s economic beliefs align with those of a free-market economist or a center-left social democrat. While advocating for free markets and recognizing their efficiency, Smith was not a proponent of unfettered capitalism. He highlighted the dangers of monopolies and the exploitation of consumers and the poor, calling for a progressive tax system to fund public goods.

Smith’s nuanced approach to economic theory positions him as a centrist economist who valued evidence and pragmatism over ideological dogma. His legacy has sparked debates among economists, with some viewing him as a champion of capitalism and others critiquing his focus on market forces over human welfare.


Adam Smith’s contributions to economics, philosophy, and moral theory have left an indelible mark on intellectual discourse. His exploration of human behavior, market dynamics, and societal organization continues to resonate with scholars and policymakers alike. By balancing the virtues of free markets with a concern for social welfare, Smith paved the way for a more nuanced understanding of economic systems and their impact on society.

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